Posted on: August 24, 2020 Posted by: admin Comments: 0

Author : Areeb Ahsan, Student at KIIT Law School, Bhubaneswar

Co-Author : Himanshu Kumar, Student at KIIT Law School, Bhubaneswar


This paper talks about the hot burning topic in the section of crimes since the post independent era known as the Extra-Judicial violence. The act of killing someone is, by all means, a crime that. But, when a similar crime is committed by those who are meant to prevent it, it shocks the legal conscience of the nation. The paper highlights the essence of such crime by the officials in the minds of the public and the makers of law. How those who guide and prevent the laws from infringement are one step ahead in breaking those laws and rule.

The panel of this research moreover deals with the types of judicial and custodial violence that has been augmenting from the past and is still at a higher rate. These types of violence leave an impact on the custodial victim either physically or mentally keeping aside the fundamental right that has been hindered. The section of the legal areas have also been dealt regarding the past and present changes and reforms that are made in lieu of the crimes committed at time of the custody of the person causing violation of the rights as per the Constitution of India.

The concluding area of this paper mentions ways to eradicate such types of violence both with the help of law and behavior. Also, how the torchbearers of the fundamental rights wrapped in the police official uniforms are implementing ways to help fight this type of custodial violence which are caused due to the corruption.

Keywords: Extra-judicial Violence, Custodial violence and killings, Fundamental rights, Encounters.


Human rights are the most important when law as a whole is dealt about. Without the rights of a person no law can be such effective.The fundamental and justiciable role of the police is to spot suspects, gather proof against them, and build arrests. Security agencies, by the nature of their enforcement role, treat everybody as suspects. The police mustn’t be allowed to act as choose and slayer. This is often why Associate in Nursing freelance judiciary examines the proof and pronounces a finding. And this is often the rationale that there’s Associate in Nursing attractiveness method to challenge all convictions.With great powers comes great responsibilities and sometimes people abuse these power for their own greed and in this situation police personnel are no exception. In a democratic country, where every corner is governed by the rule of law, the whole extra-judicial system of granting justice on the basis of execution makes it impartial, arbitrary and an outrageous act to break the law in the name of law itself. Different types of violence are augmenting in the society in which we live and one of them is Custodial Violence. The violence done upon a person while he/she is in Police custody or judicial custody comes under the purview of Custodial Violence. Custodial Violence and abuse of power by Police Personnel has become one of the main obstacles to the democracy. Custodial Violence is generally of two types i.e. Psychological and Physical which includes mental and physical torture, rape and even death. Custodial Violence is clear cut a human right violation and thus is a crime per se. It is very important to punish the offenders for their mistakes and crimes and make them go through trial to find out the truth but it is also important to respect the rights of the offender which is provided to him/her by the Constitution of India and to understand that there is a boundary set by the law which should not be crossed. It doesn’t matter how atrocious the crime is.


The extra judicial violence, whether be an execution or the violence in the police station surrounded by numerous persons have been a common thing and this particular treatment has been carried by the Independent India from the British itself. The Vedic era has been one of the front chapters of this violence.[1] Trial by ordeal was followed which included use of fire, water and even fight to the death. Trial by ordeal is an ancient practice in which a person has to go under severe pain and torture and if the person survived then it was believed that the person is pure and has given his divine proof of innocence. The epic period marked the floor of torture by various common methods used by the law enforcer to get a confession of any crime.[2]Arthashastra which is written by Kautilya also contains various kind of torture like getting ripped out by wild animals, burning of limbs, mutilation and even getting stamped by elephant and bulls. Manu who is also known as the law giver wrote Manusmriti and in it emphasized on the need of torture and violence to maintain peace in the Society.

The Prison Act of 1894 that has also not changed much. This act gave the bureaucrats a vast power to give punishment to the person who broke the rule of the jail. During the British Raj common people, woman and even children were beaten very badly to confess to the crime which they didn’t even commit. This was done by the foreign government to create a sense of fear among the people so that exploitation can be done. Post Independence several committees were formed by the centre to look into and review the method of working and level of performance of the State Police between 1950 to 1980. Most of these committees in their report stated how police personnel used third degree because of political pressure, lack of training, and corruption. All these committees recommendation were mainly concerned with the administrative set up, setting up training centers, distribute the police forces into different parts of the system and to pay different allowances to the different ranking officers. Shah Commission widely criticized the use of brute force on the people by the police during emergency (1975-1977). The commission drew the attention of the government on the behavior of the police and stated that they behaved in such a way that they are not accountable to any public authority.[3] The commission also advised the Government to take such measures so that no illegal, political or executive interference can be made in police work.

Another outstanding reason concerning the continuity of history during this field is especially the distressing facet within the method these crimes are valorized in popular culture and by the media. Police with such serious allegations against them are termed “encounter specialists”, and plenty of are awarded medals also as money rewards.[4] thus instead of prosecution and social control, there seems institutional and standard support for these killings. In step with one in all the National Crime Bureau information, there have been a hundred deaths in police custody within the year 2017 of that fifty eight individuals were in bootleg custody of police and forty two were in judicial custody. No policemen are condemned in these a hundred deaths to this point, whereas thirty three policemen were in remission and charge sheets were filed on twenty seven of them.[5] Equally, charges were framed against forty eight policemen in fifty six cases of human rights abuses in 2017, however solely three individuals were penalized. It’s clear that little action is taken against the guilty policemen in cases of torture.


“It is much pleasanter to take a seat well within the shade rubbing red pepper in some poor devil’s eyes, than to travel regarding within the sun looking up proof.” It’s even easier to torture them.[6] The mindsets of the Indians are stuffed with emotions that are outraging the symptoms of going on the far side the law or rather on top of the law. The extra-judicial execution or the tutelary violence and torture haven’t been a replacement term to the Indian population. This term has adult to such Associate in nursing extent that the ism of innocent till verified guilty has been deserted from the legal minds. There are numerous provisions mentioned in our legal framework that provides for the safeguard of someone World Health Organization is in custody or detention and these provisions are constitutional moreover as statutory. Each the procedural and therefore the substantive law give provisions that shield the correct of the one who is in custody or detention.

If someone voluntarily causes hurt to someone for a confession of a criminal offense or for restoration of property or some valuable item or to satisfy any claim shall be punishable for a term of which might be seven years and shall even be responsible for fine.[7] The most objective of this provision was to supply or stop the police officers from inflicting hurt or torture to the person within the custody; all the same the importance has been unknown. Inflicting hurt by any quite torture on the far side the orbit of law is largely the infringement of the legal and therefore the basic rights. In such cases the court cannot simply pass a mere declaration rather ought to give a compensative relief to the victim below the general public law jurisdiction for the breach of public duty by the state or its official. Article twenty of the Constitution of Bharat is additionally directly relevant to the criminal processes. Article 20(1) prevents any retrospective operation of the legal code. Article 20(2) protects an individual against prosecution and Article 20(3) states that one cannot compel any bad person to show into witness against himself. The Hon’ble Court of Madras control that any penalization that has a component of torture is unconstitutional.  In another case, the Hon’ble Supreme Court control that jail restriction that amounts to torture whether or not mental or physical, swing pressure and inflation that is on the far side the authorities of the court is unconstitutional.[8] The Hon’ble Court more explained that no captive or guilty person may be an issue to such mental or physical restraint that isn’t secure by the court.[9] Even the probabilities of police torturing the wrongdoer or to the person in custody is enshrined within the proof Act with reference to the confession created to the police wouldn’t be admissible  and since of those provisions, the police officers are going on the far side the facility unconditional with them.

Dealing with persons defendant of offence punishable with death or with imprisonment forever and in such cases police has right to cause death of the person whereas creating such arrest but what’s way more problematic than the differential treatment is that the term ‘accused’ that has been utilized in Code of Criminal Procedure, which suggests the person isn’t even proven to be guilty at now and giving such unconscionable powers to police whereas managing defendant is senseless and this has in a very approach provided a blanket to hide such extra-judicial killings done by police frequently.  The person within the custody or the victim per se such in Associate in Nursing of itself becomes low-powered ahead of the officers creating it an exasperating issue to cause the miscarriage of justice within the name of providing justice. Numerous provisions have caused Associate in nursing whip hand for the police like the correct to detain an individual or a suspect at can or maybe the correct to poses weapons de jure and these are eventually resulting in post with final power wittingly and inadvertently a degradation of law and order.


Custodial Violence is one in every of the worst crimes in any democratic society and it’s necessary to require some step to eradicate it or attempt to minimize it. Steps area unit being taken and new laws area unit on the door of enactment therefore on eradicate such violence and torture. Enactment of such laws that veto torture area unit on the each ways that imperative and a practical necessity. The Union government has knowledgeable the Supreme Court that it’s seriously considering the  report that has suggested that Republic of India ought to formalize the United Nations Convention against Torture and pass a law to stop torture and penalize its perpetrators.[10]

It is vital that police personnel area unit educated concerning human conduct and behavior; conjointly it’s important that the govt. shouldn’t hide any protective crime for the sake of police commonality. The tactic of enlisting ought to be modernized and also the policy ought to be created in such how that it meets the wants of the trendy society. The coaching practices ought to even be modernized and created additional humane in nature and conjointly the coaching shouldn’t tend at the time of enlisting solely however from time to time each personnel ought to get an update in their data in order that they’ll contribute additional to the society. The coaching ought to be of such nature that each police personnel ought to respect the human rights and adopt additional affordable technique of investigation instead of torturing the convict.

Custodial violence is abnegated with the management of protective field by the officers and also the government if the powers area unit enforced effectively and with efficiency. Protective management ought to embody few key objectives like protective the rights of the suspect, inmates and also the officers too. At the side of it the property harm and loss ought to be prevented. Norms declared by the law ought to be followed no matter whatever the offense and suspect is.

The Government of Republic of India has publicized the Protection of Human Rights Act 1993 and in terms of the Act i.e. the National Human Rights Commission that has been started in 1993. Consequently, The Hon’ble Supreme Court has passed eye catching judgments concerning the protection of the rights of the protective person. one in every of the rules provides by the Hon’ble Supreme Court in one in every of the case of province, that an individual World Health Organization has been inactive or detained and is being control in custody in an exceedingly police office or interrogation centre or alternative lock-up, shall be entitled to own one friend or relative or alternative persons famous to him or having interest in his welfare being knowledgeable, as before long as practicable, that he has been inactive and is being detained at the actual place, unless the attesting witness of the memorandum of arrest is himself such an acquaintance or a relative of the arrestee.[11]

The government will separate the investigation department from detention department in order that throughout investigation the rights of the suspect doesn’t get hindered as a result of typically the police personnel work the crime, when arrest, tries that the suspect confesses of his crimes and through now solely the torture starts that step by step converts into crime. the facility of police to arrest somebody ought to be restricted and also the safety of the captive ought to be ensured throughout arrest. Police ought to maintain a correct record of arrest of somebody on why he/she was inactive in order that the quantity of unwarranted arrest is ablated. Any law officer World Health Organization is work any crime shouldn’t tend the other duty. In gift state of affairs the law officer are becoming solely 30-40 percent of their time to conduct any investigation and because of this shortage of your time the law officer area unit opting the short-cut means which incorporates inflicting torture on the person inactive for the sake of data or confession. one in every of the largest reason for protective violence is exterior pressure and corruption therefore it ought to be created certain that in any investigation of crime no exterior pressure is placed on the law officer and extreme live ought to be taken on any law officer World Health Organization abuses his/her power and select corruption over dignity and dignity.

The Law Commission in of the report has suggested that protective deaths ought to be deemed as murder unless established otherwise, inserting the worry of disproving it on the police. The Law Commission of Republic of India has suggested to introduce a presumption that injuries sustained by an individual in police custody is also probable to own been caused by the law officer.[12] Such a provision can maybe have a restraining impact on officer’s gratification in torture. Similarly, amendments in CrPC offer an examination of the arrestee by a health professional, wherever mandatory physical examination of the inactive person ought to be done considering it the correct of the arrestee.

The main reason behind such violence is that the range of officers. An increase within the state capability for criminal justice would rather end in the resolution of the embezzled responses of fighting crime. When confronted with weak state capability and rising crime, state actors grasp that the chance of securing convictions is low, therefore their tendency is to extend the penalization so as to attain a similar level of deterrence whereas conjointly placative voters. Citizens, activists and legislators habitually demand the corporal punishment for rapists in Republic of India. The hope is that the severity of the penalization would form up for weak social control caused by capability constraints.[13] On the face of the crime, the police act as investigator, choose and public executioner all bundled in one. The police area unit unlikely to have interaction in encounter killings unless they need some widespread support, or at the terribly least, no widespread opposition. Police gets a large quantity of profit within the terms of financial or kind throughout such violence or protective killings. The most slogan ought to be to eradicate the corruption from the civil services so on offer justice or penalization, that the law deems match.


Extra-Judicial violence is not a new trend that our democratic nation is suffering; rather it has always been a hot-talk topic since the independent era. Extra-Judicial violence is one of the most blatant violations of the human rights as it strikes at the core of law and fundamental rights. No doubt, the police officers have contributed towards the maintenance of public order and their plans are also enforced with purity, activity, vigilance and description. But more often that, the police officers have been abused and condemned for torturing the public, particularly those who are in custody and detention, and inflicting injuries to their life and property. The custodial violence or the extra-judicial killings are on the face of it a well planned and calculated assault and degradation of the human rights and the dignity. Police brutality in any form either in the name of custodial violence, encounters or the arbitrary enforcement of rules is not at all a honored act when there is a democratic run nation and the law is set to be above all the powers vested in the country. Despite framing of innumerable legislations and several enquiry committees for dealing with custodial death, rape, and torture there is no major outcome.

These violence are not a restricted crime, it has been spread in terms of killings, rapes, unlawful detentions, physical and mental torture and even threats and humiliations to the family. India should break the silence against such tortures and violence asnew norms should be formulated on educating and training officials involved in all types of cases and fighting crimes. Reforms should also be made to India’s criminal justice system at large, as there can be no further delay in taking such legislative measures.


[1] 2000-1400 B.C.

[2] 1400-800 B.C.

[3] Shah Commission Era 1978.

[4] Priya Pillai, Extrajudicial killings:India’s long history of “fake encounters”, THE INTERPRETER, (Jan 29, 2019, 06:00 PM),

[5] SR Darapuri, India’s dark history of custodial abuse, SABRANG, (July 1, 2020),

[6] James Stephen in 1883 during the India’s colonial era

[7] Section 330 of IPC, 1860

[8] Inderjeet v. State of UP, (1979) S.C.C (4) 246 (India).

[9] Dastagir v. State of Madras, A.I.R. (1960) S.C 756 (India).

[10] 273rd Report of the Law Commission

[11] D.K. Base v State of West Bengal, (1997) 1 S.C.C. 416(India).

[12] Section 114(B) Indian Evidence Act, 1872

[13] Shruti Rajagopalan, How more policing could reduce extra-judicial killings, LIVE MINT, (July 20, 2020, 09:33 PM),

Leave a Comment