Posted on: July 4, 2020 Posted by: admin Comments: 0

Author : Shampa De, BBA LLB; 2018-2023; Bharati Vidyapeeth (deemed university)New Law College,Pune


This article initially focuses on the basic concept of trademark and registrable trademarks in India under THE TRADEMARK ACT, 1999. Besides, it aims to discuss in-depth details of registration of a trademark, criteria for a test of distinctiveness, refusal of registration of trademarks, prior user’s rights and procedure of registration of a trademark in India.


What does it mean actually?

According to Section 2 of Part II of the TRIPS Agreement, an indicator is a sign or an aggregate of signs and symptoms that is used to distinguish the products or services of one employer from those of another. The owner of a hallmark has the exclusive proper to apply it inside the marketplace to identify positive items or offerings or to authorize (or license) others to apply it in return for price or other benefits.


Under the Trademark Act 1999, Registrable trademarks are those marks that may be depicted diagrammatically and mark that is capable of distinguishing itself from an alternative person’s merchandise and services. Registrable marks in step with the journeys agreement state that “any sign, or any combination of signs, capable of distinguishing the products or services of 1 endeavor from those of alternative undertakings, shall be capable of constituting a trademark”. A trademark registration application is filed for a registrable mark.

Following marks is registered below the Indian Trademark law: –

Names, Authored Words, Numerals, Letters, Devices, Slogans, Signature, 3D Mark, Combination of colors, Shape of products, Sound, Smell Marks.


The registration of a trademark shall if valid offer the prerequisite to the registered businessman to the employment of emblems in respect of products and services of that the trademark is registered, and conjointly to get relief in respect of the infringement of the trademark.

  1. tokens that aren’t equipped for distinguishing the items or administrations of 1 individual from that of someone else.
  2. A trademark that comprises exclusively of such stamps or of such signs which can act in exchange to indicate the sort, quality, quality, topographical starting point, or time of the creation of items or administrations or elective attributes of items or administrations.
  3. A trademark that comprises exclusively of such stamps or signs that got standard inside the current language or in genuine and built up apply of exchange.

As indicated by Section 9(2) after a trademark will not be enrolled:

  1. If such a trademark is most likely going to hoodwink the overall population or will even reason disarray.
  2. If such a trademark has side effects on the non-mainstream opinion of any classification or segment of Indian voters.
  3. If such a trademark contains any very shocking or disgusting issues.
  4. If the use of such trademark is precluded underneath the image and Names (Prevention of Improper use) Act, 1950.

As per Section 9(3), a trademark will not be enrolled if it comprises totally of:

  1. the type of items that outcome from the character of the items themselves.
  2. the type of items that is critical to get a specialized outcome.
  3. the type of items that adds generous cost to the items.

According to Section 9(1), the following trademarks cannot be registered:

Dimensional Mark or Shape of Goods
  • A three-dimensional trademark that contains a shape that is recognized by the purchasers as a shape that doesn’t go past the extent of the state of the assigned products, and so on itself, is esteemed.
  • When letters or figures that are particularly connected to a three-dimensional shape that is assumed to be unique and when it may be recognized that the trademark is being utilized as an image to distinguish and speak to the wellspring of the products or administration, the trademark will be regarded to have a peculiarity.
  • A three-dimensional trademark comprising exclusively of a shape that must be recognized as being inside the extent of a straightforward and normal three-dimensional shape will be esteemed as peculiar, lacking uniqueness.

The importance of a booming trademark is distinctiveness. A trademark is there to be the indicator and permit shoppers to spot you and your merchandise or services higher than the other brands. It is so crucial that your business stands out from the others within the trade. Therefore, your trademark should be distinctive.

A registered trademark offers the owner final protection over the word, phrase, or image. Therefore, it’s unacceptable to permit somebody to induce this type of protection over commonplace words that just describe the products and services it represents.


Distinctive character ought to be assessed in respect of all the relevant characteristics of marks and their elements. Therefore, the assessment ought to inspect the flexibility of words, figurative components, colors, and/or 3D aspects of signs to spot the products or services as returning from a specific endeavor.

The first aspect is to look at whether or not and to what extent the elements square measure descriptive two, praising, or otherwise non-distinctive. The aim is to adjudge whether or not the common components within the sign’s square measure the (most) distinctive components or not.

The second aspect is to ascertain the distinctiveness of the sooner mark, as a whole. At this stage, the workplace should take into account whether or not the sooner mark has uninheritable distinctiveness as a consequence of the employment, the opponent has made from it.


Trademark infringement is an encroachment of the prohibitive rights joined to a trademark without the endorsement of the trademark owner or any licensees (given that such endorsement was inside the degree of the grant). Infringement may happen when one assembling, the “infringer”, uses a vague trademark, or confusingly like a trademark guaranteed by another social affair, practically identical to things or organizations which are vague or like the things or organizations which the enrollment covers. An owner of a trademark may start normal genuine strategies against a social occasion that infringes its selected trademark. In the US, the Trademark Falsifying Demonstration of 1984 censured the intentional trade counterfeit items and undertakings.

In case the specific engravings and things or organizations are very surprising, trademark infringement may even now be developed if the enrolled mark is outstanding agreeable with the Paris Show. In the US, a purpose behind action for the usage of an engraving for such unique organizations is called trademark debilitating.

In specific domains, a social affair other than the owner (e.g., a licensee) may have the choice to look for after trademark infringement methodology against an infringer if the owner fails to do in that capacity.

Courts consider different factors to decide if a trademark has been encroached or not.

  • Whether the offended party has a legitimate trademark. A trademark can be legitimate because it is authoritatively enlisted or in light of the fact that it has a case under customary law.
  • Whether the trademark is being utilized by the respondent.
  • Whether the defendant’s utilization of the trademark is “in commerce.”
  • Whether that utilization is associated with the deal, offer appropriation, or publicizing of an item.
  • Whether the defendant’s utilization of the trademark is probably going to confound purchasers.

The enlisted client of a trademark from meddlesome with the legit utilization of a normalized trademark or a trademark almost taking after with the enrolled mark.


When a trademark search is finished, the application for trademark enlistment is recorded with the Trademark Registrar. From that point forward, applying for enrollment of trademark ought to be made on the recommended way and documented close to the charge for trademark enlistment. Trademark application is recorded at one among the 5 Trademark Registrar working environment having ward over the State or online. Trademark applications are documented online by or a trademark operator or expert individual.

A trademark enrollment application ought to contain the ensuing data:

  • Logo or the Trademark
  • Name and address of the trademark proprietor
  • Order or Trademark class
  • Trademark usage since the date
  • The portrayal of the items or administrations
  • Trademark Application Allotment

When the Trademark enlistment application is recorded with the Trademark Registrar, a trademark application designation extension is given inside one or 2 working days. The trademark application may then be followed online through the net Trademark Search office. Commonly, on getting a trademark application distribution goes, the proprietor of the trademark will append the metallic component picture close to the token.


This article has brought an in-depth knowledge regarding trademark laws and its registration in INDIA. Thus it has discussed in detail all the basic concepts and trademark contents with its crisp points.


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