Posted on: November 1, 2020 Posted by: admin Comments: 0

Author : Harshit Sharma, Student at Manipal University, Jaipur

Co-Author : Ajay Poonia[1], Student at Manipal University, Jaipur


COVID-19 raises significant human rights issues, including children and women’s health rights. Abuse towards women has risen exponentially around the globe because the compulsory lockdown was implemented. Several countries have implemented unique home abuse policies, legislation, and services. In situations of concern where females are assaulted in their households during the shutdown, the National Commission for Women recorded an increase of 94 percent[2]. The pandemic harms gender in two respects: 1) middle- or higher-class women who are trapped in household abuse; and 2) poor women who do not have their homes and who live on slums or roads who return home or await migrants returning to villages. It is not only a result of limited mobility; it is also patriarchal thinking that functions in the premise of domestic violence. The methodology used in this research paper is by the allocation of all the data from sources like books, journals, samples, and surveys. Various online literature sources, papers, and articles are taken into consideration as well. While the spread of the latest Coronavirus (Covid-19) must be slowed, steps such as social barriers, shelter in areas, limited travel, and closed down of key communities’ foundations would enhance the threat of family abuse in the world dramatically. Indeed, a substantial rise in the recorded cases of domestic abuse is already evident in many countries. In subjecting Families and their relations to greater view, stigma and socio-cultural expectations are established. Sensitivity to domestic violence is therefore important. This paper is following the increase in domestic violence and why everyone needs to be aware of it.

Keywords: domestic violence, stigma, unemployment, COVID, coronavirus, lockdown, etc.


In the background of this Covid 19-pandemic, several countries worldwide have reported rising domestic abuse, including the United States of America, the United Kingdom, France, China, and India. The WHO also said that as a result of social distances and people were urged to stay at home, the likelihood of intimate partner abuse is likely to increase. From 25 March 2020 until 1 June 2020, national lockdowns in India have been introduced[3]. The Covid 19 pandemic and financial damage pandemic are two among the most spoken about during this time. The third epidemic of domestic abuse was although at the end of the iceberg. The paper explores the gaps that exist in India’s response to increased violence in the lockdown process and maintains that a detailed comprehensive strategy to resolve various aspects of violence faced by women in the largest democracy is important. The government can’t miss the opportunity to defend women from abuse. To think about a world free from gender abuse, we have to lock down collective imagination, which is reiterating the binary notions of gender and put the problems of patriarchal model and poverty in everlasting quarantine and isolation. It will also be possible to preserve social distance from misogynistic ideas and establish a strategy to remove inequality in all forms, to achieve gender equality and human rights, and to recover the rights enshrined in Article 14, 15, and 21 of the Constitution.

In the capital of India, Delhi some 2500 female emergency call numbers were registered, including 600 female assault calls, 23 rapes, and a large proportion of domestic violence (DV) calls were recorded in 1612 (Hindustan Times, 2020). (Hindustan Times, 2020). According to the NALSA report, Uttarakhand (144) and Delhi (63) (Swarajya, 2020) were given the highest number of domestic violence (DV) cases respectively. Domestic violence (DV) was registered in 700 cases out of which 21 percent had been a rise in assaults on women. The number of crimes against women rose from 4,709 to 5,695 after March and the number of cases of domestic abuse (DV) rose between 3,287 and 3,993 during lockdown (The Tribune, 2020)

The outback disease outbreak COVID-19 has already had a devastating effect worldwide[4]. As of 3 July 2020, over ten million COVID-17 cases and over 0.5 million deaths worldwide have been registered (World Health Organisation, 2020).• Domestic violence (DV) has proved to be a significant public health problem in India and around the world as a result of lock-down. On the one side, the whole planet struggles with the COVID 19 pandemic and is battling for the success of human civilization with the COVID-19. On the other side, a group of inhuman individuals kills the intimate physical and mental health. As well as domestic abuse (DV) the COVID-19 has emerged as “twin emergencies of public health.” It also has an enormous effect on mental health. Domestic violence has a more harmful influence on mental health than its physical impact. It leads to enormous depressions, nightmares, eating difficulties, and other social problems. Subsequent suicide caused by household abuse also happens in many cases (Kumar, 2012). Urgent steps are therefore needed to overcome these long-standing social problems.


Societies worldwide have consistently undervalued and marginalized women throughout history. The intimate partner violence measures in the United States only started during the 20th century. Many still perceive men’s domestic violence as a historic issue, but the fact is that a spouse abuses and rapes 1 in 3 women worldwide and the United States. Marital rape was not recognized as a felony in all 50 states until 1993. A mutual awareness of the causes of domestic violence will allow societies to respond more effectively to victims and perpetrators. Such an agreement helps us avoid providing contradictory reactions which could hinder attempts to protect and keep batterers responsible[5].

  • Gender identity – Narrow meanings that glorify hostility, brutality, and superiority of ‘appropriate male behavior.’
  • Family – messages that people should be in a household and/or intimacy (i.e. “a person’s home is his palace”).
  • Media – presenting women as property; glorification of abuse and abusive, compulsory and non-consensual sex; limitations in the roles of men and women.
  • Peer group – Social influence for men, which focuses on undervaluing women, to follow the restricted concept of masculinity.
  • Sports — We are celebrated for rivalry, attack, and domination. Colleagues who exhibit sexist and/or offensive conduct will not be held liable.
  • Impunity – Many offenders have no detrimental effect on their sexist behaviors and abusive behavior. If questioned, their reasons will be believed (e.g. blame alcohol consumption, stress, or victim-induced behavior).

Psychiatric morbidity

The husbands’ daily use of alcohol was closely related to women’s poor mental health. In many cases, alcohol has continuously become a dangerous factor for relationship abuse, which is especially consistent in all forms of violence. Alcohol works by raising the risk of aggression by reduction of inhibitions, the clouding of the opinion, and the weakening of the ability of a person to perceive signals. Other abnormalities such as bipolar disorder, psychotic schizophrenia, delusional personality, antisocial disturbance make people more vulnerable to sexual offenses. Many forensic cases have shown that liquor was a common factor of violence against women, such as Bobbit, Manu Sharma, Nirbhaya, etc. There is no doubt.

Sociodemographic factors

The key source of violence towards women was cited as Patriarchy. Identify the challenges faced, combined with low education, poor socioeconomic status, women without any own revenue, and urban home are all listed as a risk factor for domestic abuse at the beginning (15-19 years; 10-19 years), and young people (31-39 years). Women participating in small-scale and agricultural operations have been exploited more often than women who’ve been housewives or were similarly working as husbands. Where the economic status of women is higher than that of their husbands and ample capacity to alter conventional sexual roles, there is a strong risk of abuse. Violence towards women was known to be associated with single, separated, divorced, or live-in status.

Family factors

The indicator of victimization and abuse against his wife in adulthood is exposure to extreme physical punishment during a young age and the father’s infantile battering of a mother. Domestic violence has been linked to childlessness, prolonged marital life, children, extended family, and large families. Moreover, the old customs of husbands’ and bosses’ dowries and gifts are closely correlated in India with violence against women.


The Delhi Police tracked in the mid of April a “total count” of 2,446 “event types: women.” Simply placed, nearly 2,500 Delhi women have called emergency aid numbers that activate the State Police Emergency Response Support System. More than 600 of those calls were labeled as “female assault” and 23 calls were confirmed rape, although most – 1612 – referred to domestic violence. Approximately 28- years-old Delhi woman of Uttam Nagar was one of those calls[6].

Arpita Banerjee (name changed) looked forward later this year to welcome the second kid. However, during the national lockdown, her life shattered, as her husband thumped her constantly under the least of protestations. The 7-month-old Kolkata, who lives in her 30s, cannot cope with physical and mental abuse, went to her mother’s place 10 km with her 5-year-old daughter. Either because her house was tiny she wasn’t allowed there so she moved to her sister’s house.

As it can be seen that it was not meant to be forever and therefore, when she realized that there is no other option left, she could only settle for a shelter home which was overcrowded.

This is just one of many cases that represent what is the life of a victim and how they suffer repeatedly. It is still a major problem that not every victim can stand up for themselves. They have the fear of society, getting beaten up by their spouses, or the feeling of being left alone. These stories lead them to believe that they are up to no good without their husbands and therefore, should never report them. Not only this, even the family members don’t support the victim in these cases as they think it will settle after a while.


All Hindu households have a severe issue with the custom of the dowry. Some brides recently married encounter violence in their household as intimidation, physical assault, or death if it is felt that the dowries of marriage are not appropriate. Some cases are hanged, poisoned, or shot into suicides. The bride’s family commits murder or suicide in dowry deaths. Dowry deaths in India have been replaced by Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, and others. There are no special religions. In the Indian culture, about 80 % of total crime is associated with Dowry, as provided by other Indigenous religions, are considered as important rituals of Traditional Hindu Marriage[7]. Moreover, the Ritual of Tilak(Engagement), which is primarily used in the Hindu communities, is used by the Groom’s family to ask for an enormous amount of money in many parts of India.

In the case of “prescription” for marriage, “dowry” is described as the gift desired or given as a precondition for the marriage, the 1961 Dowry prohibition Act forbids the seeking, paying, or accepting dowry. Doubt is not considered and is legal to offer the gifts given without a necessary condition. Request or donation can be punishable by up to six months’ imprisonment or a fine. It repealed several anti-dowry acts passed by several Indian states. The Indian penal code tackles murder and suicide under coercion.


The legislation imposes such responsibilities on the major law enforcement agencies. If a policeman, security officer, service provider, or magistrate becomes acquainted with the domestic abuse of another, he or she shall notify the victim of[8]:

  1. Any relief recognized under the law can be applied by the victim, i.e. a security order, financial relief, custody order, residency order, or payment order.
  2. The victim may use some official service providers’ services.
  3. The victim should call and ask for assistance from a security officer.
  4. The victim can seek legal help free of charge.
  5. A criminal case may also be filed by the victim according to the general crime laws (ICC, 1860). Please notice that the criminals can be put in prison for up to three years if they file a criminal complaint. To file a lawsuit, the victim must have suffered a degree of violence (i.e. cruelty).

Moreover, state-designated shelters and hospitals are obligated to give any victim approaching them a safe place to stay and medical assistance. The victim does not have to contact and can approach it either through the security officer or via the service provider. 


Domestic abuse has been a notable and significant issue all over the world for many years, but during lock-down conditions, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, it has been further enhanced. This negative domestic abuse situation affects the health & wellbeing of thousands of women throughout their lives. The state of assault and aggression also comes in the form of “sexual violence,” which involves physical abuse, sexual violence, and “intimate partner violence” in the form both of physical abuse, sexual abuse, and mental violence. It is because Indian women are not informed, legislation, and the organization, that cope with and are there to support them with the issue of domestic violence.

One of the major solutions for this can be setting up a vigilance committee which may track the status of women’s health by conducting regular surveys and checkups which will highlight if there is any suspicious behaviour or treatment against local women. In parallel, there can be a setup of regular awareness camps to educate people.

In this research, the causes and type of domestic violence may vary in the sense of a Covid-19 disease outbreak and shutdown: verbal abuse, unhealthy-treatment, physical attack, intimidation, abuses by and sex assault for causes such as the existence of the woman, economic collapse, superior nature, alcohol, and e It is necessary to raise understanding of domestic violence rights, laws and organizations. Gender and awareness-raising programs relating to domestic violence must also take part in the syllabus of the colleges and institutions and will certainly affect the thinking of the coming generations.

  1. Flury, M., Nyberg, E. and Riecher-Rössler,  A.  (2010),  Domestic  violence against Women:  definitions, epidemiology, risk factors and consequences, Review article: Current opinion, Swiss Med Wkly, 1-6.
  2. UNFPA  (2020)  Millions  more  cases  of  violence,  child  marriage,  female  genital mutilation unintended pregnancy expected due to the COVID-19 Pandemic, April 28
  3. Shekhar Divya J (2020) What the COVID lockdown tell us about the gender gap in the household,  Forbes  India,  March  30, covid-19-lockdowntells-us-about-the-gender-gap-in-house-work/
  4. Kumar Chandan (2020)  Lucknow woman trudges 900 kms  to save  daughter from Covid-19,  The  Hindustan  Times,  May  10, covid-19/story-62QNDDaOkLXRBNXmSkCniK.html
  5. Agnihotri, A. K., Agnihotri, M., Jeebun, N. and Purwar, B. (2006), Domestic violence against women– an international concern, Clinical Knowledge, Torture, Vol.  16(1), 30- 40.
  6. Kumar, S. V.  and Chary, N. V.  N. (2016),  Impact  of  Domestic Violence Against Women, Issues and Challenges, IJHDIS, Vol. 9(1), 35-59.
  7. Choudhary,  R.,  Kaithwas,  M.  And Rana, G.  (2017),  Domestic  Violence  Against  Women’s in India A Study, PANACEA International Research Journal, Vol.1(2), 49-55.

[1] Fifth year student of Manipal University, Jaipur.

[2] COVID-19: India’s Response to Domestic Violence Needs Rethinking

[3] Shadow pandemic: domestic violence and child abuse during the covid-19 lockdown in India

[4] Examining the impact of lockdown (due to COVID-19) on Domestic Violence (DV): An evidences from India

[5] What causes domestic violence?

[6] Domestic violence during Covid-19 lockdown emerges as serious concern

[7] Domestic violence in India



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